Financial Inclusion: Trends and Research Agenda for Social Policymakers

(Pages 556-561)

Jacques Hendieh1,* and Arvind Ashta2
1C.H. Sandage School of Business, Graceland University,1 University Place, Lamoni, IA 50140.
2CEREN EA 7477, Burgundy School of Business, Université de Bourgogne-Franche Comté, 29 Rue Sambin, 21000, Dijon France.


For the past few decades, microfinance has played a significant role in banking the unbanked, but its impact on poverty has been disputed. Gradually, the attention of policymakers shifted to financial inclusion, hoping that financial deepening could impact poverty. The world bank has published three sets of Global Findex reports in 2011, 2014, and 2017. We examine the broad trends and cross-sections that emerge from these reports and propose some explanations of the trends. We note that despite the increasing financial inclusion, poverty has increased since the COVID-19 pandemic, indicating that financial inclusion does not offer resilience to the poor. We draw an agenda for researchers where more information and research are required. These future research directions are targeted primarily to development and social policymakers and researchers.


Financial inclusion, microfinance, mobile payments, social policy, poverty.

How to Cite:

Jacques Hendieh and Arvind Ashta. Financial Inclusion: Trends and Research Agenda for Social Policymakers. [ref]: vol.20.2022. available at:

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