Evaluating the Impact of Carbon Emissions on Iraq's Economic Growth

(Pages 1647-1653)

Hussaini Bala1, Umar Aliyu Mustapha2,*, Abba Ya'u3, Ghousia Khatoon1, Norfadzilah Nik Mohd Rashid4
1Department of Accounting, Faculty of Administrative Sciences and Economics, Tishk, International University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq;
2Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia;
3Department of Accounting, Finance, and Economics. Faculty of Business. Curtin University.
4Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA).
DOI: https://doi.org/10.55365/1923.x2023.21.180


Environmental pandemonium is said to have emerged from global warming which influences water availability, sea levels, food production, and weather patterns. These are all caused by CO2 emissions, which might have a large influence on economic growth. However, there is limited evidence about the link between CO2 emanations and economic growth in Iraq. Thus, there is a need to empirically examine how CO2 emissions influence economic growth in Iraq. Therefore, this study applies the Environmental Kuznets Curvature perspective (EKC) to examine the influence of CO2 emanations on economic growth in Iraq. Data was extracted from the World Bank for the period 1991 to 2020. 2gls regression model was used to account for possible endogeneity and reverse causality in the data set. The results from the analysis show that an increase in CO2 emissions via manufacturing and construction and CO2 emissions via agricultural methane increase GDP growth per capita. Consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) theory, it was found that an increase in CO2 emissions via gaseous fuel consumption, CO2 emissions via liquid fuel consumptions, and CO2 emissions via energy-related methane have an inverse link with GDP growth per capita. The findings of the study will be useful for law makers in implementing policies and strategies related to greenhouse gas emissions and economic expansion in Iraq.


CO2 emissions, Environmental pandemonium, Economic Growth.

How to Cite:

Hussaini Bala, Umar Aliyu Mustapha, Abba Ya'u, Ghousia Khatoon, Norfadzilah Nik Mohd Rashid. Evaluating the Impact of Carbon Emissions on Iraq's Economic Growth. [ref]: vol.21.2023. available at: https://refpress.org/ref-vol21-a180/

Licensee REF Press
This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.